Last time we discovered that the Agricultural Revolution stimulated a massive shift in human activity: agriculturalists manipulated the environment to suit their needs rather than adapting themselves to the environment. With their newly discovered control over the food surplus, these farming folks were able to begin creating settlements. However, thousands of years passed before civilisations began to spring up across the great River valleys of Afro-Eurasia. What came after humans had settled but before the early great civilisations?
Here we will have a look at three Neolithic archaeological sites and their significance and importance in paving the road to civil societies. This article will be a little shorter than usual and should be regarded as more of a supplemental to the previous, Agricultural Revolution, post.
Before we start it is important to understand the importance of the proto-city. A proto-city was a large village or town of the Neolithic period which exhibited features of both rural and urban life. A proto-city is distinguished from a true city in that it lacks planning and, or centralized rule. For example, Jericho had a class system but no roads, while Çatalhöyük seemingly lacked any social hierarchy. This is what distinguishes proto-cities from the first city-states.
Now onto the important stuff.
Göbekli Tepe changes everything! Some archaeologists and researchers believe that these interconnected structures in southern Turkey were built by hunter-gatherers. If they are correct then it would mean that the ability to construct monumental complexes was within the capacity of these types of groups, overturning previous assumptions.
The site dates to 12,000 years ago and consists of pillars of varying size with reliefs of many varied animals such as lions, bulls, boars, gazelles, donkeys, insects and arachnids, snakes, other reptiles and birds, particularly vultures. Some of these pillars and the artwork are very impressive indeed (I mean, just look at that sculpture ->), even more so when considering that the artisans were most likely stone age hunter-gatherers. Wow!
The lead archaeologist of the German team excavating Göbekli Tepe was Klaus Schmidt who believed that the site was not a settlement but rather a sanctuary or shrine where people from a wide region would periodically congregate. He argued that Göbekli Tepe may have contributed to the later development of urban civilisation, saying: ‘First came the temple, then the city.’
‘When the trumpets sounded, the army shouted, and at the sound of the trumpet, when the men gave a loud shout the wall collapsed; so everyone charged straight in, and they took the city.’ Joshua 6:20
Almost everyone knows of or has at least heard of the Walls of Jericho (any WWE fans out there?) and how the Israelites conquered the city with the help of a little divine intervention. By the time that Joshua’s band of Israelites captured the city some 3,400 years ago, Jericho as a settlement was already ancient by any standard.
The land where Jericho, the proto-city, was eventually built was within close proximity to both the Jordan River and the deep, clear waters of an oasis spring which led to repeated settlement prior to Jericho itself. The original Wall of Jericho was either a defensive or flood protection wall thought to date to approximately 10,000 years ago! If interpreted as a defensive fortification wall, then it is the oldest city wall thus far discovered anywhere in the world. This Neolithic wall was complemented by a stone tower built into it. It is estimated that the wall would have stood at roughly 15 feet high with the tower looming over it at a height of 28 feet. The height of the wall, the thickness of the wall (approximately 6 feet) and the addition of the stone tower, suggests that it was used as an urban fortification. The construction of such a project implies some sort of social structure, the division of labour and a social hierarchy class system: just as we saw when we looked at the Agriculture Revolution last time.
The ruins that have been excavated at Jericho indicate that the proto-city was governed by a distinct ruling class and that they were almost certainly closely connected to the priests. There were sophisticated artisans and most likely a small merchant class too. Though the economy of Jericho was based primarily upon the farming of wheat and barley, there is considerable evidence to suggest a reliance upon both hunting and trade. From these archaeological discoveries, we can see that the people of Jericho were not quite ready to fully cut the ties with their hunter-gatherer roots.
Now it is time to travel east to the Henan Province of modern China to learn of a people who may have been the first to discover things that we take for granted nowadays.
Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based on the central plain of China near the Yellow River. This area was originally settled around 9,000 years ago by a complex and highly organised society and would have been home to at least 250 people and perhaps as many as 800.
There are three very important and exciting discoveries attributed to the people who lived in the Jiahu settlement. The first of these are the Jiahu Symbols which may (or may not) be one of the world’s earliest examples of written language, dating back to approximately 8,600 years ago. Some scholars believe these 16 markings to be similar in form to some characters used in the much later Oracle Bone Script (the earliest known form of Chinese writing from the late 2nd millennium BCE). However, others have disputed this claim and do not believe that the markings represent any form of systematic writing but are merely etchings for decorative purposes.
The second of these incredible discoveries are the Jiahu Flutes: thirty-three flutes which have been delicately carved from the wing bones of cranes and are believed to be the oldest playable musical instruments in the world. The third and final discovery from the Jiahu settlement is evidence of an early fermented beverage. This alcoholic drink was created by combining rice, honey, hawthorn fruit and, or grapes and the residue found embedded on pottery vessels is dated at 9,000 years old. This Jiahu concoction is thought to be the oldest known fermented wine to date. And wine and other alcoholic beverages have been fuelling terrible decisions ever since!
And The Rest is History
I hope that you are excited to learn about the Great River Valley Civilisations as those will take up the next three instalments of the Human Story. Next time we will visit the incredible inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilisation and learn a little about ancient Indian toilets! See you then.
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